Power system

Power system

The integration of renewable energies, the development of electricity markets and the establishment of regional cooperation require in-depth adaptation of network design and operation. An adequate regulatory framework for the electricity system is essential for these changes to take place successfully.

Regulation of the electrical system

Training courses

Our teams can help relevant authorities (Ministries of Energy, regulators, network operators, etc.) to design or develop the regulatory framework for the electricity sector in order to adapt it to new conditions.

Development and implementation of grid codes

The regulatory and technological changes that are changing electricity networks require grid codes to be updated. Connection conditions, in particular for renewable energy, standard contracts, provision of system services, energy exchange between partners, interconnection management etc. are all subjects on which it is important to have clear rules.
With extensive experience both in Europe and worldwide, RTEi knows solutions adapted to each context to draft grid codes, or specific codes in close collaboration with stakeholders.

Connecting Renewable Energies

Future network users need clear, transparent and non-discriminatory access rules that allow them to optimise the profitability of their investments.
In close collaboration with the network operators, our teams propose a framework adapted to:

  • The connection procedure and associated financing rules
  • The required design specifications for the connection and their means of control
  • The network access tariff
  • Participation in ancillary services

They can also facilitate the public consultations necessary to establish such rules.

Network development

Network development schemes and programmes

TSOs are in charge of implementing the network development programme and identifying needs for equipment renewal. To do this, they must ensure a continuous and high-quality dialogue with the authorities and the regulator to arrive at a balanced development plan.
Our support focuses on process optimization, training, tools and methods used to implement multi-year development programs (10-year plans, etc.).

Connection for renewable energies

As a complementary or additional component to network development programmes, system operators must also plan the capacity for new renewable energy generation.
Our teams can help you to:

  • Define the potential of RES implementation in your networks
  • Construct a plan to strengthen or develop transmission infrastructure
  • Provide you with a renewable production forecasting system

Regional interconnections and partnerships

Establishment of regional coordination centres

Interconnecting national networks offers many advantages: a more stable network, access to the most competitive generation units at all times, greater market flexibility, etc.
But to operate safely, interconnected grids require the implementation of specific rules so that all parties can coordinate with one another.

Our teams can help you to:

  • Estimate the benefits of creating a new interconnection
  • Define common operating rules: evaluation of border exchange capacity and exchange scheduling, frequency regulation requirements, common safety analyses, coordination of maintenance shutdowns, etc.
  • Optimize exchange capacities at borders

Economic studies

Adequacy studies

At all times, there must be a balance between generation and consumption in the electrical system. Adequacy studies ensure that this balance is respected at all timescales, from very short to very long term.
Using the Antares software, a benchmark tool developed by RTE, our teams carry out studies covering all the relevant aspects, including:

  • Evolution of consumption, taking into account trend phenomena (development of energy saving measures and deployment of electric vehicles)
  • Production simulations which model all hazards on generation (meteorology, unavailability, etc.)
  • Implementation of demand side management or storage.

These studies lead to recommendations on the need for investment in new means of production.


Battery storage systems can meet several different types of needs. We carry out technical and economic opportunity studies to qualify the storage needs for your electrical system.

These studies take into account in particular the place of renewable energies in the electricity system and the need for flexibility created by the increase in RES.

Market development

Reserves, ancillary services and balancing

Generation facilities traditionally provide network operators with the services necessary for the system’s operational stability (frequency and voltage regulation, emergency and network restoration services). The development of market mechanisms for the provision of these services significantly reduces their cost.

Our teams can help you to define:

  • The needs of the system operator and the characteristics of the products required (adjustment capacity, activation dynamics, etc.)
  • Transparent and non-discriminatory rules for the participation of different network users in these services, based on obligation or market mechanisms
  • Compensation arrangements and possible compensation mechanisms
  • Monitoring of the provided services
  • Corresponding contract templates

Demand Side Management (DSM)

Consumer participation in the electricity market brings significant gains. Allowing industrial customers to provide ancillary services and reserves is a “win-win” situation: the network operator benefits from greater stability and increased reserve capacities; industrials in all sectors (steel, petrochemicals, paper, etc.) receive additional payments from their traditional activities. And this is not to mention the reduction in CO2 emissions as a result of the electricity that is not produced.

France is the first country in Europe to have opened all its market structures to all consumers, including those connected to distribution networks. As an example, RTE activated up to 1GW of demand side management in 2018 on the balancing mechanism.

Thanks to RTE’s experience in setting up one of the most favourable frameworks for DSM in Europe, RTE-i can help you identify the potential for the electricity system and build appropriate mechanisms.

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